There are only two ways that a patterns can be written/abbreviated, using the American 'US terminology' or the British 'UK terminology'.
These days with so many crochet patterns from all over the world available on social media, it's hard to know which are using the US terms and which are using the UK terms.
This basic crochet conversion chart will help you decipher 'old' terminology patterns, to those that are newer and written using US terminology.
Alternatively, you can find a full list of Crochet & Knitting Abbreviations, Chart Symbols and many more wonderful tips and links by visiting the Craft Yarn Council website.
It's always useful to know how to read Crochet symbol charts, although I prefer a written pattern (words/abbreviations), I often find myself stumbling upon an amazing pattern, only to find out that the instructions are written in a language I do not understand.
A stitch or symbol chart takes away the translation problem. Below you will find the most common crochet symbols found in most patterns. However, please note that this is far from a complete list.
I assure you that you will still come across a symbol or abbreviation that you’ve never seen, especially in more complex patterns.
I am collating a list of complex symbols and will post it as soon as I'm finished, in the meantime, Google search is your best friend.
What is a turning chain? Well the purpose of a turning chain is bring your yarn to the height needed in order to work the first stitch of your next row or round. The number of chain stitches you make in the turning chain will depend on what the next stitch in the next row is.
The turning chain almost always counts as the first stitch of the next row, except for the single crochet. The single crochet turning chain isn't wide enough and creates a rough edge to your rows.